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The operating environmental temperature (air temperature) should be in the range of 16°C-26°C, the operating laser head temperature range is 20°C-24°C. The coolant temperature needs to be set to the final chiller setting given in the certificate of conformity (typically a value close to 22°C).
Related to: venteon/ taccor/ gecco
Please use an appropriate coolant preventing aluminum corrosion.
Recommended coolants are Glysantine G48 or LIQ-705CL-B (Koolance) in a 1:2 mixture with distilled water. Set coolant temperature to the final chiller setting given in the certificate of conformity (typically a value close to 22°C).
If the laser is operated with a third party chiller, it must be ensured that the flow does not exceed 2 l/min and the pressure does not exceed 1 bar. Too high flow values can cause turbulent flow in the housing causing excessive noise on the output. Too high pressure can cause serious system damage.
There are different causes which can lead to a performance change of the laser system. Please check the following steps to ensure the performance change is not caused by an external factor. For gecco and venteon systems please ensure to check steps 1 – 7 prior to any cleaning or realignment. For venteon systems also include step 8 and 9.’
There are different causes which can prevent the system from lasing or modelocking. Please check the following steps to ensure this is not caused by an external factor. For gecco systems please ensure to check steps 1 – 6 prior to any cleaning or realignment. For venteon systems also include step 7.
When the laser receives a back reflection from the setup (e.g. when coupling the laser output to a fibre) it is possible that the shutter closes automatically during operation. Therefore please avoid feeding back reflected light from optical components such as a fibre facet, which can be achieved by introducing a slight angle between the incoming beam and the component’s normal. Thus the reflected beam does not travel back the same way as the incoming beam. The coupling efficiency to a fibre should not be affected significantly by a small angle, FC/APC fibres are recommended.
If back-reflections into the laser can be excluded and the shutter still closes automatically, please contact us.
There are cases where the optics of a gecco or venteon need to be cleaned. This is only necessary if the gecco or venteon
In such case please ensure to check the steps described in FAQ ‘How do I measure the output power correctly?‘ and FAQ ‘The output power and/or the spectrum do not match the data specified in the certificate of conformity – what can I do?‘ prior to any cleaning!
Related to: gecco / venteon
Cleanliness of the Ti:sapphire crystal, the mirrors and the windows within the gecco or venteon is of general importance for proper operation. For cleaning of the gecco or venteon optics please ensure to wear clean disposable gloves to avoid contamination. Remove the access panel, check for signs of contamination on the optics and disable the laser. Do not clean the optics whilst the pump laser is enabled! All optics within the gecco or venteon are cleaned with optics grade acetone and lens cleaning tissue.
Generally the gecco or venteon cavity should not be re-aligned. Only in the highly unlikely event that the performance changes described in FAQ ‘When do the optics in a gecco or venteon need to be cleaned?’ are not solved by repeatedly cleaning the optics or re-adjusting the pump power it is recommended to re-align the cavity.
For realignment, after referring to the user manual, please ensure to wear clean disposable gloves to avoid contamination and switch the gecco or venteon to maintenance mode via the user screen. Only use the two adjustable end mirrors of the cavity, M9 & M6 (OC) for the gecco and M8 & M6 (OC) for the venteon. Please read the user manual carefully prior to any realignment.
If the attempt to re-align the laser fails to bring the laser back in spec please contact our Support team.
Yes, each of our taccor, gecco and venteon systems can be purchased with the repetition rate control option. Control of the repetition rate and active feedback is enabled by cavity mirrors mounted on a fast and slow piezo crystal enabling rapid feedback and drift control simultaneously. In combination with the TL-1000 repetition rate stabilisation unit, timing jitter below 100fs can be achieved.
Alternatively, the repetition rate can be slightly changed by variations of the temperature of the cooling system. The change of the repetition rate is depending on the coefficient of thermal expansion of aluminium. Increasing the temperature leads to a smaller repetition rate, decreasing the temperature leads to a bigger repetition rate. In a taccor system for example, a temperature change of 1°C leads to a change in repetition rate of approx. 27kHz.
Related to: gecco / venteon / taccor
Yes, some care has to be taken so that the supported bandwidth of the steering mirrors is larger than the spectral width of the oscillator. Typically, coated silver mirrors should be used as standard dielectric mirrors may not be broadband enough.
Also, (dielectric) multistack mirrors may spoil the phase of the pulse, as they may introduce phase jumps in the spectral regions where the stacks join, which will destroy the compressibility of the pulse, i.e. the short pulse duration.
Related to: venteon
Measuring broad spectra as they are emitted by the venteon oscillator series requires an intensity calibrated spectrometer. The typical compact CCD spectrometer is not intensity calibrated, meaning that portions of spectrum are displayed differently from a measurement using a calibrated instrument. This is especially true for the long wavelength edge above 1000nm, which will be largely underestimated by non-calibrated spectrometers.
High accuracy intensity calibrated spectrometers include; the Ando AQ6317B, or the Yokogawa AQ6370.
The ultrashort pulses are made up of a coherent superposition of many different wavelengths, this is especially true for few-cycle pulses. When propagating through material, the wavelength dependent refractive index results in different propagation speeds for the different individual wavelengths (dispersion), which in turn results in a temporal broadening of the pulse (chirping of the pulse due to group velocity dispersion). To be able to measure the duration of few-cycle pulses, all dispersion in the beam path has to be compensated for, this is also true for the optics inside the measuring instrument. At these large bandwidths, the effect of the dispersion by propagating through a piece of 1mm fused silica is not negligible. As an example, the dispersion of the beam splitter of a typical autocorrelator has to be compensated for to be able to measure 5fs pulses.
For a near transform limited 5fs pulse as from the venteon ultra propagating through 10mm of BK7 glass, the pulse would be already stretched to 360fs. Propagation through 1mm of fused silica would stretch the same pulse to approx. 20fs, the same as travelling through 2m of air at room temperature. As an example, to compensate for passing through 15mm of fused silica (which adds about 540fs² of GVD) four bounces, off a pair of DCM11 mirrors, are needed (one pair of DCM11 mirrors introduces approx. -130fs² of GVD, i.e. approx. -65fs² per mirror)
For extremely short pulses, such as few-cycle pulses, this can best be done with a combination of Dispersion Compensating Mirrors (DCMs) and wedges. DCMs compensate the dispersion in discrete steps, and adding a pair of wedges enables continuous adjustment of the compensation to reach the optimal amount needed to gain the shortest pulse duration at the target. Alternatively, these can be combined together in a “pre-chirper” with motorized control to make regular alterations easier.
Ultrafast systems are used for applications that vary from customer to customer, so the final negative dispersion compensation needed for each set up, and possibly for each experiment, is different. It is Laser Quantum’s view that the negative compensation needed for the final interaction in the end users experiment is what matters and the compensation should be done only once, as this gives the user the best possible result.
To obtain the pulse duration measured during manufacture, the complete spectrum is needed. Also the outer low level wings do contribute considerably to getting the short pulse duration as specified. Thus, clipping the edges of the spectrum or using dispersive mirrors outside their specified range for the dispersive properties will result in degradation, and the pulse duration not being able to reach the value specified.
The venteon SPIDER is designed for input of an s-polarized beam, matching the s-polarized output from a venteon OPCPA. Other pulse diagnostic devices, such as e.g. autocorrelators, are typically designed for p-polarized input, matching the p-polarized output from the venteon as well as the taccor series of oscillators.
Related to: venteon/ taccor
There are different approaches to use; one would be to use a wave plate. However, the bandwidth of wave plates may be limited, and not rotate all wavelength components by the same amount. Also, the wave plate will introduce dispersion. A much more suitable option for use with extremely short and few-cycle pulses is the use of a polarization turning periscope, which is made from reflective optics suitable for handling the bandwidth whilst introducing only negligible dispersion.
The wedge inside the oscillator is not only used for coarse adjustment of the carrier envelope phase in CEP stabilized systems (the fine adjustment and stabilization is done via modulation of the pump power), but also for the fine tuning of the dispersion of the resonator. To obtain the extreme spectral bandwidth, in the range of a few hundred nm of the venteon series of oscillators, the overall dispersion of the resonator, while in mode-locked operation, has to be as close as possible to zero.
Therefore, the wedge position inside the resonator matters considerably for obtaining the broadest spectrum for the short pulse measured during production. Please keep in mind that the wedge position might be changed after installation since the ambient conditions are different from the place of production.
The venteon interferometers do not use small apertures in their setup, so beam pointing that would translate to a fluctuating power level of the CEP beat signal is not critical for the venteon CEP5 approach and does not need any stricter requirements compared to other techniques. Also, the signal power is not sensitive to temperature drifts or misalignment. In terms of stability, the CEP stabilized laser system (the pump laser and femtosecond oscillator) and f-to-2f interferometer are each built on an all-water-cooled monolithic breadboard, so thermal drifts are minimised as much as possible for those systems.
The venteon CEP5 approach does not require a PCF fibre for spectral broadening, the octave-spanning spectrum is obtained directly from the laser. There is no nonlinearity involved other than a simple SHG of the IR part of the spectrum in the f-to-2f interferometer!
Some applications require a spectrum with less bandwidth and smoother shape than offered by an octave spanning spectrum but still need CEP stabilization. To fulfil these requirements, the venteon power uses the more traditional approach – using a PCF fibre for spectral broadening, keeping a high power output from the oscillator with a smooth shape, less than octave spanning spectrum, for use in these experiments.
Not at all! The venteon f-to-2f interferometer is very compact, almost common path configuration and hands-off, so you don’t have to touch it after installation. Should the beam in front of the interferometer be misaligned for some reason, there are three pinholes included in the setup and a readjustment can be performed by doing a beam-walk on these irises to obtain a good beat signal. This re-adjustment is very straight forward, since there are only two mirrors to align.
This approach still requires a nonlinear broadening, which can cause amplitude-to-phase noise conversion affecting the stabilization effort. Since the venteon spectra are broad enough, we don’t need this technique and also require no fibres! (Except in the venteon power) The main advantage of the venteon CEP5 f-to-2f interferometer is that it needs only the wings of the spectrum as input and thus works with less than 20 mW of input average power, a really efficient approach! For the DFG approach > 15 0mW of power has to be used for the stabilization. Additionally, the venteon systems deliver much shorter pulses, so any CEP effect is much more pronounced!
The venteon CEP5 f-to-2f interferometer setup is almost common path. A common path interferometer is typically used with amplified pulses, where due to the available pulse energy a lower efficiency all-in-line setup can be used. With typical pulse energies from an oscillator however, the almost common path version is the most stable and efficient solution. Dividing and recombining the IR part only in the interferometer makes no major stability difference here as it is only a short path length built on a monolithic base. Choosing this way, makes the interferometer insensitive to dispersion of the in-line part of the setup, since the delay between both arms can be controlled easily. The frequency doubling and beat signal generation are all done in-line for best long term stability.
A SNR of >30 dB (@ 100 kHz detection bandwidth) for the beat signal is the standard specification of our systems, as well as typically that by other manufacturers. The venteon octave spanning oscillator typically delivers >40 dB SNR for the beat node from the interferometer (@ 100 kHz detection bandwidth) – venteon works in close collaboration with Menlo Systems for the CEP stabilisation and their locking electronic works very well with the power levels and SNR provided by the venteon interferometer.
The mirrors are designed for 6° angle of incidence, but everything between 0 and 10° is no problem, if you go beyond 15 ° the coating properties are slightly shifted and oscillations get out of phase.
The standard pre-amp system is limited by the nonlinearities in the fiber amplifier, hence a 1nJ output energy. We can, however, customise a system that reduces the peak power by stretching the pulse prior to the input, followed, if required by post-amplification compression. In this way, we can boost the output of the 1µm narrow bandwidth beam up to ~100nJ at reduced repetition rate of 1 MHz.
Temperature range: 5°C to 45°C
Humidity: Non condensing
Related to: ventus/gem/torus/opus/finesse
The operating environmental temperature (air temperature) should be in the range of 15°C to 32°C.
Passive cooling using heat sink – minimum requirement is an Aluminium plate with dimensions of 40cm x 40cm x 1cm thick.
Active cooling using heat sink with fins and forced air flow
Active cooling using cooled water and a chiller plate.
Related to: ventus/gem
The power supply unit will automatically switch the laser off if the in-built over temperature protection system is activated. The laser can only be switched back on when the laser head has cooled down sufficiently.
In case of overheating please check that adequate heat sinking is provided to the laser head.
If a chiller is being used, please ensure that it is connected to the chiller plate on which the laser head is mounted and the fluid is circulating properly, this can be verified by opening the chiller and checking for movement of the water.
If the PSU has fans, please ensure that nothing is blocking them and check that all the fans are rotating properly.
If the cooling system and the fans are running properly and the laser head and /or the power supply unit are still overheating please contact our Support Team who will be happy to assist you.
For measuring the output power please use a calibrated power meter that is rated for use at the specified power of your laser. Ensure that the wavelength is set according to the value specified in the certificate of conformity and place the power meter in front of the output aperture. Please perform the measurement without any additional optics between the output aperture of the laser head and the power meter.
There are different causes which can lead to a performance change of the laser system. Please check the following steps to ensure that the performance change is not caused by an external factor.
There are different causes which can prevent the system from lasing. Please check the following steps to ensure that this is not caused by an external factor.
Using measurements the thermal resistance of the forced air cooling plate was calculated to be 0.08C/W. This means at normal laboratory temperatures and conditions, the temperature of the 6W opus 532 can be maintained
Yes, our green pump sources such as the finesse or opus are well suited to pump also Ti:S lasers running in ps mode or as cw laser. Existing customers are successfully applying Laser Quantum lasers in these areas.
For a complete list of FAQ’s on our ScanMaster Controller, click here
You can find more information in our guide here
Ensure that there is continuity on the status channels of the data cable. Check the results for parity errors. If there are parity errors, this indicates that either your controller is expecting the incorrect parity or there is a break in the connection. Check the format of the status signal as described in the chapter detailing the XY2 100 protocol. If none of these solutions correct the problem, contact us for technical support.
First, ensure that there is no obstruction to the mirrors. Once you have determined that the mirrors can move, check that the proper power connections have been made, and that the power has been applied. Next, check that all other connections have been made correctly, including the connection to the motor. If the system still will not power up, contact us for technical support.
Ensure that the system is on, and that the controlling device is delivering the appropriate signals. Check the continuity of the command cable, and that the connections to the controller are firm. If the system will still not react to commands, contact us for technical support.
In certain demanding applications, a significant amount of power is consumed in the motor that generates significant heat in the motor coil. This heat can propagate through the motor body and rotor, change the motor parameters as well as the encoder response, and compromise the system’s accuracy. To address this potential problem, we have developed active cooling solutions to regulate the motor’s temperature.
Thanks to the accurate representation of the scanner system by the state space model, LightningTM II can drive a wide range of loads. The algorithm can model up to four resonance frequencies, enabling it to control loads that would be impossible to drive with any available servo electronics. In order to configure a system with a custom load, contact us for technical support.
Lightning II systems incorporate six* differentiating elements:
*some configurations do not include all six elements.
The LED on the LightningTM II digital servo driver is currently* used as a general diagnostic indicator. During normal operation the LED remains constantly illuminated when the driver is idle, and flickers when the servo is issuing commands.
If the LED is not illuminated at all, this indicates a problem, and you may experience problems with communication. Verify the power to the board is connected correctly (connector pins and voltage levels). If the power connection is correct, contact Cambridge Technology for technical support.
* Future versions of the firmware might re-define this LED function
It depends on the mirror inertia, angle, and command waveform.
Since LightningTM II is based on observer-based state-space modeling rather than traditional feedback architecture, the tuning process is different from traditional PID tuning. When you receive a Lightning II system it has been tuned in the factory, and optimized to your application requirements. However, because of the advanced modeling, you will find that the optimized tune can still be used in a versatile range of applications without compromising performance.
Depending upon how the supply is configured or the distance between the supplies and the driver boards, the S + may have to be connected to the Out + either right at the supply or at the driver board and the S – may have to be connected directly to the Out – either right at the supply or at the driver board.
The ground connection between the Out – and Out + and the ground connection between the two servo drivers should be a very heavy gauge low resistance wire.
The power supply ground connection is optional and is usually not connected.
For a complete list of FAQ’s on our CRS series, click here
For just a single CRS set, we recommend a power supply with 12 V and 1 A. The CRS operates at only one frequency, it is very efficient and doesn’t require a lot of power.
Currently, our Synrad product brand has more than 250,000 CO2 lasers operating around the world. And the number is rapidly increasing as manufacturers become more familiar with the laser’s capabilities and benefits.
The exact components necessary to operate a laser depend on your application. All applications require some kind of “beam delivery system” or means of directing the laser beam to the work surface, and changing or focusing the beam. Turning mirrors and focusing lenses may be used to accomplish this.
You will also need some sort of motion system, such as an XY table, galvo scanning head, or plotter mechanism, an AC/DC power supply, and depending on the power of the laser you are using, a cooling system for the laser.
No. On the contrary, our sealed CO2 lasers are extremely easy to operate and require no special training. Just set them up and let them do their job. It’s that simple. No maintenance is required.
Lasers are actually safer than most types of machinery. Precautions are very much dependent on your application. The primary danger of lasers comes from the possibility
of the laser beam being reflected from the work surface. An acrylic or polycarbonate screen usually offers sufficient protection. Safety glasses or goggles should always be worn when the laser is in operation.
The size of the laser head varies, depending on the model, Synrad lasers start as small as 17”.
While other laser technologies require regular maintenance and/or disposables like flowing gasses for laser usage, a Synrad sealed CO2 laser requires no maintenance or additional disposables to operate. Synrad employs a straightforward design, DC power in and laser power out. Our patented “All Metal Tube” technology is virtually maintenance-free. Synrad lasers can be expected to operate for thousands of hours before a gas refill is required.
Synrad’s CO2 lasers can mark, engrave, drill, weld, cut, and perforate a wide range of materials, including: acrylic, foam, ceramics, gasket, wood, paper, plastic, textiles, rubber, stainless steel, titanium, thin metals and many others. See Applications for more detail.
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